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Tornadoes and Severe Storms


Tornadoes are outgrowths of powerful thunderstorms that appear as rotating, funnel-shaped clouds. They extend from a thunderstorm to the ground with violent winds that average 30 miles per hour. Also, they can vary in speed dramatically from being stationary to 70 miles per hour. With a loud roar that sounds similar to a freight train, tornadoes in the United States typically are 500 feet across and travel on the ground for five miles. Every state is at some risk from tornadoes and the severe storms that produce them. These same destructive storms also cause strong gusts of wind, lightning strikes, and flash floods.

Tornadoes can strike quickly with little or no warning, giving those in impacted areas barely enough time to take shelter. Because of the unpredictable nature of tornadoes and severe storms, it’s normal for people to experience emotional distress. Feelings such as overwhelming anxiety, trouble sleeping, and other depression-like symptoms are common responses to these types of disasters. Other signs of emotional distress related to tornadoes and severe storms include:

  • Worrying a lot or feeling guilty but not sure why
  • Feeling helpless or hopeless
  • Thinking that something is going to happen when forecasts for any storm are issued
  • Constant yelling or fighting with family and friends
  • Having nightmares or thoughts and memories related to the storm

Symptoms of distress may appear before, during, and after a tornado or severe storm and may manifest in the hours, days, weeks, months, or even years after the storms occur. Learn more about warning signs and risk factors for emotional distress related to tornadoes and other disasters.

Where Can I Get Help?

The Disaster Distress Helpline (DDH) is the first national hotline dedicated to providing year-round disaster crisis counseling. This toll-free, multilingual, crisis support service is available 24/7 to all residents in the U.S. and its territories who are experiencing emotional distress related to natural or human-caused disasters.

 Call or text 1-800-985-5990

Who is at Risk for Emotional Distress?

People at risk for emotional distress due to the effects of tornadoes and severe storms include:

  • Tornado survivors. People living in impacted areas, particularly children and teens, previously exposed to traumatic, life-threatening situations during a tornado or severe storm are vulnerable to distress.
  • Friends and loved ones. It's normal for friends and family members located outside the impacted area to feel anxious about people who are in direct proximity to a tornado or severe storm.
  • First responders and recovery workers. These individuals may experience prolonged separation from loved ones (depending on the severity of the tornado or storm) and show signs of mental fatigue.

Once warnings for tornadoes or severe storms are issued, the risk for distress becomes greater. It's normal to feel unprepared, overwhelmed, or confused, particularly if you are not at home or lack a storm shelter. You may also feel isolated due to telephone or electric power outages, or if you are separated from friends or family members.

Returning to a home, business, school, or place of worship impacted by a tornado or severe storm may cause additional distress, especially if there is structural damage. A temporary or permanent loss of employment may also occur.

Remember, too, that the anniversary of a disaster or tragic event can renew feelings of fear, anxiety, and sadness in disaster survivors. Certain smells or sounds, such as smoke or sirens, can also trigger emotional distress. These and other environmental sensations can take people right back to the event, or cause them to fear that it's about to happen again. These “trigger events” can happen at any time.

Most people who experience disasters are able to recover quickly, but others may need additional support to move forward on the path of recovery. Finding ways to manage stress is the best way to prevent negative emotions from becoming behavioral health issues. Learn about coping tips for dealing with tornadoes, severe storms, and other types of disasters.

Additional Resources for Tornadoes and Severe Storms

The SAMHSA Disaster Technical Assistance Center (DTAC) also helps states, territories, tribes, and local entities deliver an effective mental health and substance abuse (behavioral health) response to tornadoes and other natural disasters. Learn more about these issues and find more disaster-related resources at Disaster Preparedness, Response, and Recovery.

Last Updated
Last Updated: 06/09/2023
Last Updated